Analysis of Differences in Sports Competition Orientation Between Sports and Non-sports Pupils

Dževad Džibrić, Amela Smajlović, Amer Hodžić, Tarik Ljubović, Dragiša Jovanović, Erko Solaković

Abstract


Sport, or sports, is a very important factor in personality formation. Success in sports is often conditioned by a positive outcome, that is, by winning competitions, but also by competitiveness, as the main sportingcompetition orientation that distinguishes athletes and non-athletes. This research was conducted to identify differences in sports-orientation among younger students of athletes and non-athletes. The research was conducted in seven Tuzla elementary schools. The population from which the sample of 512 respondents was selected was defined as the population of fourth- and fifth-grade students, both sexes, aged 9.4 years. Two sub-samples were formed from the population thus defined. A sub-sample of 328 respondents involved in a particular sport activity (sports games, karate, gymnastics, swimming, tennis, etc., 2-3 training sessions per week), group - athletes. A sub-sample of 184 respondents who do not engage in any sports activity at all, the group - non-athletes. The Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ; Gill and Deeter, 1988) was used as an instrument. The non-parametric Mann - Whitney U testfor independent samples was used to determine differences in the answers to the questions asked between the athletes and non-athletes. The results obtained in this study show that athletes score higher on allthree subscales than non-athletes, in other words more competitive, more win-oriented and more goal-oriented. From the results of particles with statistically significant differences, it can be seen that athletesare looking forward to competing with athletes (p = 0.04) and training hard to be successful (p = 0.04), do not like to lose (p = 0.04), or give trying their best to win (p = 0.04) and trying to achieve these goals(p = 0.03). This has provided us with important practical information, first of all for classroom teachers, kinesiologists, and later for others working in education, who should be oriented towards encouragingtask-orientedness in their students through appropriate strategies and instructions. Such an orientation plays an important role in maximizing student involvement in participating in sporting activities providedby the school and outside the school through various competitions.

Keywords


school; lower grades; competition; survey

Full Text:

PDF

References


Cetinić, Jelena, Saša Vuk (2007), ˝Ciljna orijentacija u nastavi tjelesne i zdravstvene kulture˝, u: V. Findak (ur.), Zbornik radova 16. ljetne škole kineziologa Republike Hrvatske “Antropološke, metodičke, metodološke i stručne pretpostavke rada u područjima edukacije, sporta, sportske rekreacije i kineziterapije”, Poreč 2007, Hrvatski kineziološki savez, Zagreb str. 82-88.

Chirban, Sharon A. (2010), ˝Psychology of the Young Athlete˝, u: Lyle, J., M. D. Micheli (ur.), Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine, SAGE knowledge, London

Coakley, Jay, Peter Donnelly (2009), Sports in Society: Issues and Controversies, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, Toronto

Duda, Joan L. (1988), ˝The relationship between goal perspectives, persistence and behavioral intensity among male and female recreational sport participants˝, Leisure Sciences, 11 (2), str. 95-106.

Duda, Joan L. (1989a), ˝Goal perspectives, participation and persistence in sport˝, International Journal of Sport Psychology, 20 (1), str. 42-56.

Duda, Joan L. (1989b), ˝Relationship between task and ego orientation and the perceived purpose of sport among high school athletes˝, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11 (3), str. 318-325.

Gill, Diane L., Thomas E. Deeter (1988), ˝Development of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire˝, Research Quarterly, 59(3), str. 191-202.

Diane L., Lavon Williams, Deborah A. Dowd, Christina M. Beaudoin, Jeffrey Martin (1996), ˝Competitive orientations and motives of adult sport and exercise participants˝, Journal of Sport Behavior, 19, str. 307-318.

Harris, Paul B., John M. Houston (2010), ˝A reliability analysis of the revised competitiveness index˝, Psychological Reports, 106(3), str. 870-874.

Jagacinski, Carolyn M., Joan L. Duda (2001), ˝A Comparative Analysis of Contemporary Achievement Goal Orientation Measures˝, Educational and Psychological Measurement, 61 (6), str. 1013-1039.

LeBlanc, Janet, Louise Dickson (1996), Straight Talk About Children And Sport: Advice For Parents, Coaches, and Teachers, Coaching Association of Canada, Ontario

Martens, Rainer, Robin S. Vealey, Damon Burton (1990) Competitive Anxiety in Sport. IL: Human Kinetics, Champaign

Newton, Maria, Joan L. Duda (1993), ˝Elite Adolescent Athletes’ Achievement Goals and Beliefs Concerning Success in Tennis˝, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15, str. 437-448.

Ostrov, Jamie M., Richard A. Weinberg (2005), ˝Sports/Athletics, Children and˝, u: Fisher, C. B., Lerner, R. M. (ur.), Encyclopedia of Applied Developmental Science, SAGE knowledge, London

Roychowdhury, Dipanwita (2018), ˝Functional Significance of Participation Motivation on Physical Activity Involvement˝, Psychological Thought, 11(1), str. 9–17.

Shivetts, Michael S. (2006), The effects of an individual goal-setting intervention on goal orientation, self-confidence, and driving accuracy in average golfers: a quantitative design, Electronic Theses and Dissertations, GA: Georgia Southern University, Statesboro; https://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1099&context=etd (11. 1. 2020.)

L. K. (2009). ˝Play as Competition˝, Psychology of. u: Carlisle, R. P. (ur.), Encyclopedia of Play in Today’s Society, SAGE knowledge, London

Vansteenkiste, Maarten, Edward L. Deci (2003), ˝Competitively Contingent Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Can Losers Remain Motivated?˝, Motivation and Emotion, 27(4), str. 273-299.

Weinberg, Robert S., Daniel Gould (2003), Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology, IL: Human Kinetics, Champaign

White, Sally A., Joan L. Duda (1992), ˝Goal Orientations and Beliefs About the Causes of Sport Success Among Elite Skiers˝. The Sport Psychologist, 6, str. 334-343.

White, Sally A., Joan L. Duda (1994), ˝The relationship of gender, level of sport involvement, and participation motivation to task and ego orientation˝, International Journal of Sport Psychology, 25(1), str. 4-18.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN: 2490-3604 (print) ● ISSN: 2490-3647 (online)

Društvene i humanističke studije - DHS is under the Creative Commons licence.